Parasitic diseases

Scaly foot

Scaly foot, or knemidocoptiasis is a bird ailment that is common among caged birds and also affects many other bird species. It is caused by mites in the genus Knemidokoptes which burrow into the bird’s flesh. The tunnels made by the mites within the skin cause dermatitis and scaly lesions. Scaly face is caused by the same mite responsible for scaly foot and other related mites cause depluming. The condition is transmitted from one bird to another by direct prolonged contact.


Dermanyssus gallinae

Dermanyssus gallinae (also known as the red mite) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. It has been implicated as a vector of several major pathogenic diseases.[1] Despite its common names, it has a wide range of hosts including several species of wild birds and mammals, including humans.[2][3] In both size and appearance, it resembles the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum.


Echidnophaga gallinacea

Echidnophaga gallinacea, also known as the hen flea or sticktight flea, is part of the 2,500 known flea types in the Siphonaptera order. Echidnophaga gallinacea appear dark brown in colour and is a small flea measuring approximately 2 millimetres in length, which is half the size of the common cat flea.[1] Echidnophaga gallinacea also differ in anatomy compared to the cat flea due to lacking genal and pronotal combs known as ctenidia.[1][2] Echidnophaga gallinacea like all fleas, have powerful hind legs which allow the flea to jump great distances compared to its size.

viral diseases

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens. The disease is caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus (Coronaviridae, Orthocoronavirinae, genus Gammacoronavirus, subgenus Igacovirus),[1] and characterized by respiratory signs including gasping, coughing, sneezing, tracheal rales, and nasal discharge. In young chickens, severe respiratory distress may occur. In layers, respiratory distress, nephritis, decrease in egg production, and loss of internal (watery egg white) and external (fragile, soft, irregular or rough shells, shell-less) egg quality are reported



Avian influenza, known informally as avian flu or bird flu, is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds.[1][2][3][4][5][note 1][6] The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine fludog fluhorse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (AB, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds.[7] Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus


Marek’s disease is a highly contagious viral neoplastic disease in chickens. It is named after József Marek, a Hungarian veterinarian who described it in 1907. Marek’s disease is caused by an alphaherpesvirus known as “Marek’s disease virus” (MDV) or Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2).[2] The disease is characterized by the presence of T cell lymphoma as well as infiltration of nerves and organs by lymphocytes.[3] Viruses related to MDV appear to be benign and can be used as vaccine strains to prevent Marek’s disease. For example, the related herpesvirus found in turkeys (HVT), causes no apparent disease in the birds, and continues to be used as a vaccine strain for prevention of Marek’s disease.And paralises of limbs